This question is a common concern of many swimming teachers and is governed by the answer to another question: How many students can the teacher see at any given moment? Obviously, the answer has to be “all of them”. If the teacher, when in water, can safely observe the entire class at all times, then this is considered permissible. However, to be in the water at the same level as the students, so that only a few of them can be seen, is considered an unsafe practice. The ability levels of the students also need to be taken into consideration, as beginner-level students need to have the teacher in the water with them.
Beginner and intermediate students benefit more and often respond better by having interaction with the teacher in the water. As long as supervision is maintained, students benefit from teacher demonstrations, communication on the same level, and a greater sense of safety and comfort.
When instructing in or out of the water, the teacher should be able to observe the students at all times.
The teacher must be prepared to enter the water in the event of an emergency and therefore must be appropriately attired.
The use of swimming aids is important for developing kicking ability. The most commonly used teaching aid is the kickboard, which should be introduced in the learn-to-swim and water safety programs. The kickboard should be thin enough to sit comfortably in the young swimmer’s hand. Initially, the swimmer should hold the kickboard with the hands apart, fingers on top and thumbs underneath (as in answer A above)
As the skill of the swimmer improves and their confidence grows they should hold the kicboard by the sides, with hands approximately shoulder-width apart, fingers curled under and thumbs on top pointing in the direction of propulsion (as in answer B above). Why? Holding the board at the leading edge (the one furthest away from the swimmer’s face as in answer C) tends to keep the swimmer too high in the water and force the hips down too deep; holding the kickboard at the edge closest to the swimmer’s face with fingers on top of the board reinforces a dropped wrist position, which is a difficult fault to correct.
As skills improve and confidence grows, the introductory strokes development group swimmer will not rely heavily on the kickboard. If skill quality is maintained, the advanced hand position should change in order to prevent a dropped wrist when releasing the kickboard to initiated a stroke (when doing drills of how to stroke). The wrist-up position (ie wrist higher than fingers) must be maintained when releasing the kickboard and this cannot be achieved with a hands-on-top-of-the-board position (as in answer D).
The hand position and the size of the kickboard should change as the skill level improves. Use a of a smaller board should be recognized as an achievement in the introductory strokes development group. The kickboard’s size can be reduced – just cut off the back end of the board. Alternatively, the board can be turned sideways, which also increases resistance.
For advanced kicking and body position skills for backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly, introductory strokes development group swimmers can advance to just holding a large rubber band or a tube band. Swimmers should concentrate on a greater kicking effort and a locked, elbow-in body position.
The short answer is … as many as the coach recommends and the swimmer is available for. However, there is no one right answer to this question. Basic training principles tell us that every swimmer is unique. Eight sessions a week for one swimmer may be ideal: for another it may not be enough: yet for another it may be excessive. In addition, each sports has unique demands. However, there are a few guidelines:
Most sports are built around skills and techniques. No matter how many sessions are done, how many kilometers are covered, ho much weight is lifted, the most important aspect of many sports is good technique.
The body will respond to the stresses and loads placed upon it, providing it is given enough time and the right conditions to recover and adapt. In other words the more training, the more emphasis on rest and recovery.
Young simmers should not work at high intensity for sustained periods.
The last guideline is perhaps the most important. Too many coaches, when faced with the situation of swimmers not improving, try to increase the intensity level of the training, believing that more work means better swimmers.