Quality technique: Key performance indicators in introductory strokes development group


  • Little finger first, straight arm recovery;
  • Feet together with kick-in (hand entry) and kick-out (hand exit) timing of the arm stroke (balanced);
  • Long arms – head down at start of stroke;
  • Each stroke to have a straight elbow position prior at the hand/arm entry position. A high or slightly elevated wrist position is desirable in this position.
  • Breathing when arms are under the body (prior to recovery).


  • Hip high position;
  • Continuous arm (straight, high on recovery), brushing ear and entering water at 11 o’clock and 1 o’clock;
  • Extended legs, pointed toes on the surface;
  • Stable head position;
  • Knees underwater in kick.


  • Both feet turned out on kick;
  • Knees inside feet on backwards kick;
  • Arms pulling outwards to 2 o’clock and 10 o’clock in a locked position after kick is complete;
  • Legs up slowly and extended back quickly;
  • High hip position;
  • Long glide to the count of three;
  • Long arms, head down at start of stroke;
  • Arms and legs follow a slow, then fast action.


  • Strong continuous kick with extended legs, pointed toes;
  • Bent arm recovery with an elbow lead, slight thumb-first semicircle recovery;
  • Controlled breathing and head position;
  • Long stroke with slow arms;
  • Fingertips, wrist, elbow, shoulder, no-splash entry;
  • Balanced Stroke (right versus left).

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